Henry Gray (1821–1865)
Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918
The Layer of Rods and Cones (Jacob’s membrane).—The elements composing this layer are of two kinds, rods and cones, the former being much more numerous than the latter except in the macula lutea. The rods are cylindrical, of nearly uniform thickness, and are arranged perpendicularly to the surface. Each rod consists of two segments, an outer and inner, of about equal lengths. The segments differ from each other as regards refraction and in their behavior toward coloring reagents; the inner segment is stained by carmine, iodine, etc.; the outer segment is not stained by these reagents, but is colored yellowish brown by osmic acid. The outer segment is marked by transverse striæ, and tends to break up into a number of thin disks superimposed on one another; it also exhibits faint longitudinal markings. The deeper part of the inner segment is indistinctly granular; its more superficial part presents a longitudinal striation, being composed of fine, bright, highly refracting fibrils. The visual purple or rhodopsin is found only in the outer segments.